Hydro Products and services

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Small Hydro Solutions

VAPTECH's Hydro Power experienced team of engineers and experts specializes in the delivery and integration of complete energy production solutions for hydropower plants to the entire satisfaction of plant owners and operators internationally. 

The experience and traditions in turbine production (Francis, Pelton, Kaplan) and Inlet valves (Spherical, Butterfly, Inlet Johnson) is more than 70 years and even today the complete mechanical equipment is manufactured and tested in our own production facility. With this vast experience VAPTECH has earned a strong reputation for its quality products and individual approach in every hydro project. 

Regarless if the hydropower plant is greenfield or exisitng one, VAPTECH is supporting plant owners by developoing and delivering the most efficient complete electromechanical solutions that would best fit the project energy production requirement. 

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Pelton Turbines

Pelton turbines are an excellent solution for projects with high to medium heads and strong flow variation. VAPTECH provides Pelton turbines with horizontal or vertical shaft arrangement and with 1 to 6 injectors.

According to VAPTECH standards the Pelton runner is CNC machined from one piece of high quality stainless steel forging. Each runner is dynamically balanced and measured to assure the integrity of the physical part with the computer model.

The injectors are equipped with hydraulically operated individual deflectors for immediate diversion of the water jet from the runner in case of emergency shutdown. Every injector is put under series of functional and pressure testing.

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Francis Turbines

Francis turbines are used mainly for medium heads and relatively low fluctuation of the water discharge. Francis turbines by VAPTECH demonstrate proven smooth performance in terms of efficiency, lack of cavitation and vibration in the complete specific speed range from ns 80 to ns 300.

The runner is a welded construction of high quality stainless steel casting for the crown, band and blades. The finished runner is controlled and accepted according to the IEC standards.

Francis turbine by VAPTECH is fully assembled in our workshop and it is tested for functionality and under pressure. The assembled and tested turbine is delivered at site ready for a fast and smooth installation.

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Kaplan Turbines

The axial turbines are designed for projects with low and very low heads with a strong flow variation.

VAPTECH offers mainly the classic vertical shaft Kaplan turbine with 3 to 6 runner blades and with double regulation. For runner diameters up to 1400 mm we use a steel spiral casing and for bigger runner diameters we recommend a concrete spiral casing.

Our solution and advice is for a direct coupling of the generator shaft to the runner without the use of speed increaser and therefore without loss of efficiency.

The runner is manufactured from high quality stainless steel castings with CNC machining. The blades surface is controlled to assure the integrity of the physical part with the computer model.

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Spherical valves

High pressure valves 

The standard line of VAPTECH Spherical valves is designed for diameter range from 300 to 1000 mm and pressure ratings 40, 63 and 100 bar. The valve opening is realized with a hydraulic cylinder and the closing is with a counter weight. The seal of the rotor to the valve body is realized by a movable stainless steel sealing that is actuated through a water-oil pressure system.

Outside the standard line VAPTECH develops spherical valves for a specific pressure and with diameters up to 3000 mm. The sealing system can be optionally equipped with an additional maintenance seal that, when activated, allows for inspection of the main seal without draining of the penstock water.

The valve function can be alternatively realized with a double acting hydraulic cylinder or with an electrical actuator. Additionally the valve can be equipped with an upstream and downstream pipes, bypass system, hydraulic pressure unit and digital control system

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Butterfly valves

Middle and low pressure valves 

The standard line of VAPTECH Butterfly valves covers diameter range from 300 to 1400 mm and pressure ratings 6, 10, 16 and 25 bar. The valve opening is realized with a hydraulic cylinder and the closing is with a counter weight.

Outside the standard line VAPTECH develops butterfly valves with specific pressure up to 40 bar and diameter up to 5000 mm. Depending on the relation between inlet diameter, pressure and water speed the rotor is designed as a disk or as a lattice. The valve function can be alternatively realized with a double acting hydraulic cylinder, an electrical actuator or with a handwheel. Additionally the valve can be equipped with an upstream and downstream pipes, bypass system, hydraulic pressure unit and digital control system.

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Digital control system

For continuous and optimum operation 

The digital control system is designed to provide full automation for the regulation, interaction and synchronization of the hydromechanical  systems:


• Turbine regulating system
• Turbine inlet valve
• Bypass system
• Intake hydraulic steel structures

The automation algorithm is developed by VAPTECH experts and is intended to deliver smooth operation of the entire electromechanical system. Based on the specific requirements of the customer and the grid operator the mode of the turbine regulator can be set according to the water intake level or the capacity of the generating unit. The control system can be easily accessed remotely via internet or satellite.

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Modernization and Renewal

Hydropower stations are built to serve their owners for the long term. With the right maintenance program the life of the electromechanical system can be extended for more than 100 years.

For the existing power stations VAPTECH provides diagnostics and analysis, emergency services, spare parts, repair, redesign to increase the turbine efficiency, modernization of the hydraulic and control system, installation of additional capacity.

VAPTECH service centre is available to you on +359886223535 and service@vaptech.bg